#### Transcript Black Holes - Solar Physics and Space Weather

ASTR 113 – 003 Lecture 08 March 22, 2006 Spring 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy II Review (Ch4-5): the Foundation Star (Ch18-24) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Galaxy (Ch 25-27) (Second Exam on March 29) Cosmology (Ch28-29) Extraterrestrial Life (Ch30) Sun, Our star (Ch18) Nature of Stars (Ch19) Birth of Stars (Ch20) After Main Sequence (Ch21) Death of Stars (Ch22) Neutron Stars (Ch23) Black Holes (Ch24) ASTR 113 – 003 Lecture 08 March 22, 2006 Black Holes Chapter Twenty-Four Spring 2006 Guiding Questions 1. What are the two central ideas behind Einstein’s special theory of relativity? 2. How do astronomers search for black holes? 3. What are super massive black holes, and where are they found? 4. In what sense is a black hole “black”? 5. In what way are black holes actually simpler than any other objects in astronomy? 6. What happens to an object that falls into a black hole? 7. Do black holes last forever? Special theory of relativity • This theory, published by Einstein in 1905, is based on the notion that there is no such thing as absolute space or time • Space and time are relative value, depending on the speed of the measuring object Two Basic Principles of the Special Theory of Relativity 1. The laws of physics are the same regardless of the constant velocity at which you move 2. You always measure the speed of light to be the same, regardless of your speed or direction of motion Speed of Light (300000 km/s) Is Absolute Length Contraction •The length of a moving object is shorter; the faster it moves, the shorter it is •Spaceship, 10 km/s, contraction 10-9 •Moving at 98% of C, contraction by a factor of 5 Time Dilation •Time goes by slower in a moving object •Moving at 98% of C, one second becomes five seconds – Clock at rest ticks every second – Same clock, when moving at 98% of speed of light, ticks every 5 seconds as observed by an observer at rest Spacetime • For a moving object, space becomes shorter, time becomes longer • However, the entity “spacetime”, which couples space and time, remains the same in both the rest frame and the moving frame • The spacetime is a four-dimensional entity, combining 3dimensional space and one dimensional time • In the spacetime description, space and time becomes inter-changable General Theory of Relativity • Published by Einstein in 1915, this is a theory for a more complete description of gravity • A massive object causes space to curve and time to slow down • The distortions of space and time are most noticeable in the vicinity of large masses or compact objects, e.g, the surface of a neutron star and a black hole Equivalence Principle •The downward pull of gravity can be completely duplicated by an upward acceleration of the observer •Gravity is equivalent to the bend or curvature of space Gravity Equivalent of Curvature of Space • The curved space not only acts on the object with mass • The curved space also acts on the light, even though light does not have mass • The light seeks to move across the shortest distance between tow points; in a curved space, the light bends instead of moving in a straight line Proof of Theory of Relativity 1. During the solar eclipse, the starlight is deflected by the Sun’s gravity by an amount of 1.75 arcsec (1919) 2. Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, shows an excessive precession that perfectly fits the slightly curved space near the Sun. Gravitational Red Shift • Because of the time dilation, the period of light wave from the surface of a strong gravity becomes longer, and thus the frequency becomes smaller • Or equivalently, wavelength becomes longer; this is so called gravitational red shift • On the surface of a white dwarf, red shift (Δλ/λ) is a factor of 10-4 • On the Sun, the gravitational red shift is negligible Theory of Relativity Predicts Black Holes Stellar Black Hole • If a stellar corpse has a mass greater than about 2 to 3 M, gravitational compression will overwhelm any and all forms of internal pressure, including degenerate neutrons and nuclear forces • The stellar corpse will collapse to a singularity, immediately around which the escape speed exceeds the speed of light • Far away from the black hole, the space is the same as in the case of a normal main sequence star Certain binary star systems probably contain black holes Cygnus X-1 • Black holes have been detected using indirect methods • Some binary star systems contain a black hole • In such a system (e.g., Cygnus X-1), gases captured from the companion star by the black hole emit detectable X rays Stellar Black Hole Supermassive Black Holes at the Centers of Galaxies • Supermassive black holes, one million to one billion solar masses, exist at center of almost every galaxy • These are detected by observing the motions of material around the black hole Schwarzschild Radius • Schwarzschild radius is the distance from the center to its event horizon • It can be regarded as the “size” of a black hole • For a black hole with 5 solar mass, the radius is 15 km Singularity and Event Horizon • The entire mass of a black hole is concentrated in an infinitely dense singularity • The singularity is surrounded by a surface called the event horizon, where the escape speed just equals the speed of light • Nothing—not even light— can escape from inside the event horizon Black Hole Bends Light Causing Multiple Images Falling into a black hole: an infinite voyage • Stretched along the line pointing toward the hole due to the strong tidal force • Gravitational red shift: blue color turns to red • The probe appears to slow down, and takes an infinite time to reach the horizon because of the gravitational time dilation • The probe will appear to remain suspended for eternity at the event horizon • However, if you ride with the probe, it plunges right through the event horizon, and into the singularity WormHole • Could a black hole somehow be connected to another part of spacetime, or even some other universe? • General relativity predicts that such connections, called wormholes, can exist for rotating black holes Black holes evaporate Key Words • • • • • • • • • • black hole black hole evaporation equivalence principle ergoregion event horizon general theory of relativity gravitational radiation gravitational waves gravitational redshift Heisenberg uncertainty principle • law of cosmic censorship • length contraction • Lorentz transformations • • • • • • • • • • • • • • mid-mass black hole no-hair theorem primordial black hole proper length (proper distance) proper time Schwarzschild radius (RSch) singularity spacetime special theory of relativity stellar-mass black hole supermassive black hole time dilation virtual pairs wormhole